Libya is considered to be one of the hottest countries in the world. The biggest part of its territory is occupied by the desert of Sahara. In 1922 on the 13 of September in the station in Al Aziziyah was measured the highest temperature in the world. The main export product of the country is the oil. Libya has close economic relations with the countries of southern Europe. The current head of the Arab Jamahiriya – Muammar Gaddafi – has been in power since 1969.
Geography. Libya is located in the north central parts of the continent of Africa. It is located between 19 and 33° north latitude and between 9 and 25° east longitude. Libya is a Mediterranean country – on the North it has a wide outlet to the Mediterranean. To the east Libya bordered with Egypt, to the southeast by Sudan, to the south by Chad, to the southwest with Niger, to the west by Algeria and to the northwest by Tunisia. Libya has a very favorable economic and geographic position because it is located very close to the developed countries of southern Europe. In respect to the nature, Libya has very good preconditions for tourism development, as it has beautiful beaches, warm climate and exotic landscapes. Moreover, another great advantage of the geography of Libya is that there are major oil fields in its territory.
Relief. The flat relief and plateaus predominate in Libya. From the north to the south the elevation gradually increases and in the southern parts ranged mostly between 500 and 700 meters. Only into the extreme southern parts of the country could be see some lower mountains. Here, on the southern border of the country is the highest peak on the territory of Algeria – Mount Bette that despite the Libya’s flat landscape is 2267 meters high. The mountain is of volcanic origin. The coastline of the country is not very indented and is generally devoid of bays and peninsulas. The exception is the Gulf of Sidra (Sidra Bay), which occupies large territory of the coast. This is one of the most deserted countries in the world. The landscapes are extremely beautiful. The sand dunes, which in places reache a height of 50 – 100 meters create the feeling of large ocean tidal waves, which are standing still. The greenest and most fertile parts of the country you can find on the shores of the Mediterranean. But here the vegetation is not particularly lush and the scenery is dominated mainly with scrublands. There are some hardly hot-resisting palms (mainly Date Palm and Royal Palm). The local vegetation tolerate the drought and the high temperatures of the subtropics. In Libya there is no rivers and for drinking the local population uses the artesian waters.
Climate. Libya gets under the influence of the subtropical and tropical climate zones. The subtropical climate zone occupies the northern parts of the country around the shores of the Mediterranean. Here the climate is favorable for residential development and agriculture. The summers are long, extremely hot and dry, while the winters are much more pleasant with moderate temperatures. During the winter months fall almost all precipitation in the year. Libya to the south falls within the tropical climate zone. The temperatures are extremely high all year around. The weather is dry and hot throughout the year. Libya is one of the main factors that influence the climate of the countries in the southern parts of Europe. It plays the role of climate corridor. Thanks to the flat relief and the lack of mountain barriers, the warm air masses of the Sahara Desert are free to move to the north and affect the weather in much of the Mediterranean, especially Italy, Malta and Greece, making the local Mediterranean climate much milder and warmer than is typical for the subtropical climate zone on the other places of the planet. Libya is considered to be one of the hottest countries on the planet. In Al-Aziziyah station located in the northwestern parts of the country in 1922 on September 13 was measured for all time record high temperature of 58 degrees centigrade in the shade! The country’s capital Tripoli has a very warm subtropical climate. Just two months during the year the daytime temperatures are lower than 18°C – these are January and February with temperatures around 16°C – 17°C. The summers are long and hot. From early April to late November is too hot. March and December are the months with very pleasant temperatures around 18 – 20°C. The climate resembles that of Andalusia and Cyprus, but with scarce rainfall.
Economy. Libya’s economy is much better developed than the economy of many other countries in Africa. The main source of incomes is the mining and export of oil. Second most important sector is the agriculture. The arable lands occupy only 1% of the country. The main crops are date palm, peanuts and corn. The livestock-breeding is better presented. Here are grown sheep, goats, poultry, livestock and the traditional animal in this part of the world – the camel. As regards to the economy, Libya is close to the Mediterranean countries and especially to Italy. The education and health in Libya are free and generally available to the public. Libya can not alone meet its needs for health workers and had to import workers from abroad, attracting the highly qualified profesionalists through higher wages, which offers them. Libya plans in the future to carry out a plan together by Europe in respect to creating and developing of fields for extracting of solar energy. It is believed that in the future Libya may powered by solar energy the countries in Europe and in particular those of the Mediterranean. Libya seeks to develop its international tourism, but the country had almost no experience in this respect and therefore the first steps are very uncertain and unstable. The state still has not developed the image of tourist destination and few people select it to spend their holiday in this country. The potential visitors do not underestimate also the fact that sometimes arise some problems with the visas for EU citizens and it is very disadvantageous to Libya, because the main tourist flows in the world come from Europe.
Population and settlements. Libya’s population is around 6.1 million people and is very unevenly distributed on the territory of the country. The main part is concentrated around the shores of the Mediterranean. There are also the largest cities – Tripoli and Benghazi.
– Tripoli has a population of around 1.5 million inhabitants. Here is the heart of the Libyan economy. The city has good infrastructure. In the central parts rise several skyscrapers, which give to the city a modern look. The most beautiful part of Tripoli is located next to the Mediterranean coast. Apart from the central commercial area, here are the most expensive and beautiful residential neighborhoods. Here are the best hotels, restaurants, cafes and shops.
– Benghazi is the second largest city in Libya. Has a population of about 700,000 inhabitants. Although the city is not so sleek, maintained and modern city, as Tripoli, it also has its charm. The city has many great prospects for future development.
Head of state: Muammar Gaddafi
Currency: Libyan Dinar
Nature: Primarily desert + Mediterranean bush vegetation
Highest peak: Bette (2267m)
Highest temperature: 58°C (Al Aziziyah)