Switzerland is located in the hearth of Europe. It borders by Italy on the south, France on the west, Germany on the north and by Austria and Liechtenstein on the east. It has mainly mountainous relief. The biggest part of the territory of the country is occupied by the mountain range of the Alps. Only in the northern part, near by the border by Germany the altitude is less than 500m. With its territory of 41 285sq.km. this is one of the small European countries. The country has not outlet on the Mediterranean Sea, but is located only 155km from the Italian coast.
Here you can find some of the highest peaks on the continent – the world famous Matterhorn, which is 4477 meters high and Monte Rosa which rises to 4634 meters on the border between Switzerland and Italy.
Switzerland is water-rich country. On its territory are scattered some of the most beautiful lakes on the continent – Lago Maggiore (on the border with Italy), Constance Lake (on the border with Germany), Neuchatel Lake, Geneva Lake, Zurich Lake and the small but very beautiful lake St. Moritz.
Switzerland is world famous with its beautiful sceneries. Jagged mountain peaks, covered by snow all year around, lush, green meadows, pine forests, crystal clear streams descending from the peaks of the Alps with furious speed down.
This is not some cliche, but real, traditional Swiss landscape. The today’s relief has formed by the action of the glaciers and the active processes into the Earth’s crust.
Unfortunately, Switzerland is strongly affected by the global warming.
In the last few years there is series of warm winters. This affect negatively the tourist industry of the country, because the snowfalls are more and more insignificant, the snow cover is thinner and the altitude of the snowfalls is more and more bigger.
Because of this reason Switzerland is one of the most active countries on the planet in the protection of the environment with no meter if with super modern recycling technologies or ecological companies.
Climate of Switzerland. The climate of Switzerland is mainly mountainous, because the biggest part of the territory of the country is occupied by the mountain range of the Alps.
This mean cold and long winters with heavy snowfalls and short, cool summers. However, the areas with more insignificant altitude has very interesting climate, which is a result of its specific location.
During the winter months the climate is determinates by the cold air masses coming from the north and the humid air masses coming from the west.
The northern air brings to Switzerland very low temperatures and the masses coming from the west bring significant snowfalls.
The summer months are dominated by the air masses from the Mediterranean, which are the reason for the hotter summers in comparison with the other countries in the temperate climate zone.
The climate of Switzerland can be compared with the climate of two other European countries – Austria and Bulgaria. The Swiss Alps play the role of climate barrier.
The mountains that are more than 4000 meters high do not allow to the cold air masses in the winter to pass through the mountain range and to reach to the Mediterranean.
During the summer months the Alps stop the hot air coming from the Mediterranean and because of this reason the climate is too different in to the north and into the south of the mountains.
This country, however, is favoured by its occupation, because the cold and snowy winter is really beneficial for the tourist industry.
During the summer months the weather is perfect – the days are mainly warm and sunny, and some of them are really hot!
Geneva can boasts with its mild and pleasant climate. The average daily temperatures in July are about 25°C. The coldest part of the year is January, when the night temperatures are negative, but during the day is about 3 – 5°C.
The daily temperatures are more than 18°C from early May to the late September. The rainfall is abundant and uniformly spread around the year.
The climate of Zurich is much hotter than Geneva. The average daily temperatures in July and August are about 30°C.
From the early December to the late February the average daily temperatures are about 10°C. In contrast to Geneva, the rainfall in Zurich is not uniformly spread.
The biggest part of the precipitation fall during the summer months. The difference between night and daily temperatures is bigger than the difference in Geneva.
The nights in Zurich are cooler. For example, the temperatures in the winter nights in Zurich can drop to (-10) °C. After the hot summer days the temperatures can drop to 10°C.
The climate in Lausanne is similar to this in Geneva. The average daily temperatures in January are about 5°C and in July and August can reach 25°C.
The maximum of the precipitation is during the spring and autumn months.
In the Swiss capital Bern the temperatures vary between 2°C in January and 23°C in August, which is the warmest month. This of course are average temperatures and some days can be much more cooler or hotter.
Population. The population of Switzerland is 7 500 000 people. There are four official languages – German, French, Italian and Retro Romanian.
Beside them the English is spoken everywhere as an international language. The population is very cosmopolitan. The times in which the population of Switzerland was of German, French or Italian origin are in the past.
Today the Switzerland is home to people from all over the world, who come here to study, work, to invest their money or just to live here.
The country is home to many celebrities, who are attracted by the low taxes and very comfortable lifestyle.
As a result of numerous factors such as high standard of living, high quality of the food, very low crime, less harmful habits of the population in comparison with other high developed countries in the world, lower percentage of illiteracy in comparison with the other countries and so on, today the population of Switzerland is among the longest-lived on the planet.
Economy. The Swiss economy is one of the most developed and Switzerland is one of the richest countries in the world. The economy of the country is specialized in few spheres of the industry.
They have made the country what is it today. Switzerland is famous because of its banks, the high-quality chocolate, dairy products (cheese, yellow cheese) and the extraordinary watches.
Very important to the economy is also the tourism. Switzerland is one of the most visited countries in the world, especially during the winter months, when the ski resorts and ski slopes are full of crowds.
The most popular winter resort on the planet is located on the territory of Switzerland – this is St.Moritz.
It is located in the southern part of Switzerland near by the border with Italy (about 16km). It is situated on the shore of the homonymous lake. It is situated in an altitude of about 1800m.
The Swiss cities are known as one of the best for living in the world. Every year cities such as Geneva, Zurich or Bern, get into the leading positions of different international ranking about the high quality of life.
In almost every rating you can see some of the Swiss cities on the most prestigious positions.
It is really very difficult to imagine beautiful, tidy and clean city if you never been in Switzerland. The freedom and safety can be felt everywhere.
The Switzerland’s transport network is perfect despite the enormous difficulties causes by the mountainous relief. There are many tunnels passing under the mountain range of the Alps.
They make the crossing of the mountains very fast and easy, even in hard winter conditions. Switzerland has no outlet to the sea, but the distance of the Mediterranean is insignificant.
If you set out early in the morning for the Italian coast or even the French Riviera you will be on the beach at noon.
290km is the distance from Geneva to Nice and Monaco and 327km from Zurich to the Italian coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
It is obviously that with one high quality transport network such as the Swiss this distance is negligible.
Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. After the referendum gets clear that the population of Switzerland does not wish to become a part of the European community.
Switzerland observed a successful policy of neutrality.