Besides the covered by eternal snow and ice peaks of the Alps, the Caucasus and the Scandinavian Mountains, the coldest place in Europe covers the far northeast of the continent. These are the Arkhangelsk Region, the Republic of Karelia, Nenets Autonomous District and, of course, the far north of Murmansk Oblast on the territory of European Russia. In this part of the continent, which falls within the subpolar climate zone, winters are very long dark and harsh, with strong arctic winds, heavy snowfalls and temperatures that fall with ease to about 30 – 40°C below zero. Summers here, in the far north of Russia, are short and cool.
Although the sun during the summer months shines 24 hours a day, the weather is not very sunny. The sky is often covered with a blanket of gray clouds, and the average daytime temperature even in July rarely exceeds 17°C.
Here, in the coldest part of mainland Europe, is located the largest city beyond the Arctic Circle – Murmansk.
Assuming that winter is a season with average daytime temperatures that are lower than 10°C, then winter in the region of Murmansk lasts at least nine months – from early September to the end of May.
This period coincides also with the regular snow season in this northeastern-most corner of Europe.