It has excellent infrastructure, clean environment, beautiful and tidy buildings as well as high life standard.
Everything rings perfect, but actually the local climate is very harsh.
1. Reykjavik (Iceland)
Despite this fact the capital of Iceland – Reykjavik – is one of the coldest three capitals on the planet.
Under the influence of Gulfstream, the warm waters of the Atlantic reach to these latitudes and make the climate of Iceland to be milder.
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In the geographic latitudes of Iceland the sunshine is incredible natural wealth.
During the winter months the sun is never shining.
And vice versa – in the summer month the day lasts 24 hours.
Interesting is the fact that in the winter month the temperatures are not too low – the night temperatures are around (-3) °C and the daily temperatures are 2°C.
In comparison with some cities of northern Europe, the temperatures in Reykjavik are acceptable.
The trouble is that the winter lasts almost all year around.
For example the warmest month in Reykjavik is July.
The daily temperatures with great difficulty reach 14°C.
The night temperatures are around 7 – 8°C.
The warmer summer days are cool in comparison with the Mediterranean winter.
The vegetation of Reykjavik is scanty.
The trees are few and are presented mainly of pine trees and some kinds of broad-leaved species that are adapted to the local harsh conditions.
The most widespread is the grassy vegetation.
The main reasons for the missing of trees are the low temperatures and the insufficient sun shining.
The precipitations are significant especially in the winter months.
The natives are adapted to the hard conditions in Reykjavik, but for the visitors the local climate can be unbearable.
Actually the capital of Iceland has the optimum climate conditions of the country.
In this reason 118 000 people live in the capital.
The population is significant in comparison with the common population of the country – 317 000 people.
2. Ulan Bator (Mongolia)
Ulan Bator, Mongolia is the second pretender for the title “coldest capital on the planet”.
It is situated in the northern central parts of the country.
The altitude of the city is more than 1200m.
Ulan Bator has exceptionally dry temperate continental climate.
In the summer months fall the biggest part of the precipitation.
The winter is drier.
The precipitations are insignificant and fall as a snow.
The weather is usually sunny all year around.
The winter temperatures are exceptionally low – around (-15) °C in the day and (-27) °C in the night!
There is not other capital on the planet with so cold winter.
The winter in Ulan Bator is much colder and sunny than the winter in Reykjavik.
In Ulan Bator can not be seen polar night, because the climate is temperate, but not arctic or subarctic.
And yet, Ulan Bator can be also warmer than Reykjavik, because the daily temperatures in the summer in Ulan Bator can reach 22°C.
But in fact the temperatures can reach even 30°C, because of the intensive sun shining.
In contrast to Reykjavik, Ulan Bator has not oceanic climate, but continental.
The great difference between the winter and summer temperatures are not obstacle for the city to be home of more than one million people.
This is one third of the population of the country that is 2 850 000 people.
The city is surrounded by mountain ranges.
In the summer months the mountains are covered with grassy vegetation, because the scanty precipitations are usually concentrated in the summer months.
Forests are missing.
The landscape is rocky and stony.
Everything is coloured in beige and brown nuances.
3. Nuuk (Greenland)
But maybe the coldest capital on the planet is Nuuk – the capital of Greenland.
As a whole, this island which is possession of Denmark is covered by glaciers all year around.
The temperatures in January are lower than the temperatures in Reykjavik, but higher than the temperatures of Ulan Bator.
The night temperatures in January are not more than (-10) °C and (-5) °C in the day.
The closeness of the Atlantic Ocean do not allow to the winter temperatures of Nuuk to reach the level of Ulan Bator.
But the temperatures in the summer months are lower the Ulan Bator and Reykjavik.
Actually the climate of Nuuk remains winter all year around.
The temperatures in July vary between 4 and 11°C.
The climate is subarctic.
The summer is very short and cold.
The winter is long and frosty.
Moreover, the polar night make the conditions to be harder.
The life in Nuuk is absolutely conformable with the climate.
Because of the hard conditions the large island of Greenland has population of not more than 57 000 people. 18 000 is the population of Nuuk.
The opportunities for entertainment and out door activities in the capital are limited.
The population spends the biggest part of its free time under cover.
To compensate, the natives do not loose opportunities to enjoy of the few nice days in Nuuk.
The local population lives in harmony with the nature.
The infrastructure of the city is well developed and quality.
The trees are missing.
The reasons are few.
The sun shining in the biggest part of the year is scanty.
On the other hand the climate is too cold and during the short summer the soil can not unfreezes enough.
In these reasons in the local conditions grow only grassy vegetation as it has not deep roots.
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