Canada is the second largest country in the world. It borders on the USA in south and Alaska (one of the United States) in north-west. It occupies an area of around 9 984 670 sq.km. and has population of more than 33 000 000 people. It has outlet on the Pacific (in west), Atlantic (east) and Arctic Ocean (north). Canada has two official languages – English and French. English is spoken of the biggest part of the country. This country is cosmopolitan and international.
It is very attractive to the young (and not so young) workers from all over the world that come here to find better life. The population of the country is concentrated in the south parts, near by the US border.
Canada gets into the borders of three climate zones – temperate, subarctic and arctic. The biggest part of the population, inhabit the temperate climate zone, because it offer the best conditions.
In this (southern) part of Canada there are four seasons – spring, summer, autumn and winter. The biggest cities of this country are namely here. Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Winnipeg, Calgary and so on, are situated immediately to the US border.
Toronto climate. The weather in Toronto can be characterized by hot summer, cold winter and short spring and autumn. The average daily temperatures are (-1) °C in January and 26 °C in July.
In July and August, sometimes the temperatures can reach 35 and even 40 °C. Sometimes in the winter months can involve arctic air masses and then the weather is extremely cold.
The temperatures can drop to (-20) or (-25) °C. The spring and autumn are very short because of the flat relief that allow to the hot and cold air masses to modify the weather very strong for short term.
From November to March, the weather is cold (-7 °C) in November, 2 °C in December, (-1) °C in January, 0 °C in February and 5 °C in March). The spring lasts one month – April. The temperatures are around 10 °C. The weather is changeable.
The weather is warm in May – around 18 °C and hot in June, July and August as well as in September. The weather vary between 21 and 26 °C.
In October the weather is changeable – the temperatures vary between 10 and 20 °C. Some days are warm and some are cool. The average daily temperatures are 14 °C.
The biggest part of the precipitations fall from late spring to early autumn. The winter is drier. The main part of the winter precipitations fall as snow.
Vancouver (British Columbia) is situated on the west coast and it has absolutely different climate. The summer is cool and the winter is milder.
The average daily temperatures in January are 5°C and in July 22°C. The conditions amazingly remain to the climate on the British Islands.
Around the west Canadian coast and Alaska passes warm ocean stream. It makes the climate mild. This warm stream is the main reason for the significant precipitation that fall in this area all year around.
And yet, despite the summer months are also wet, the biggest part of the precipitations fall in the winter months. The snowfall is rare. The wettest month is December.
As a whole, the climate of Vancouver is easy bearable. Extreme conditions are not typical for this part of the country. The transition from summer to winter is not sharp.
Every month after January is 2 to 4°C warmer in comparison with the past month in contrast to the east parts of the country where the transition seasons between winter and summer can last 2 – 3 weeks.
In Winnipeg (Manitoba) the differences between summer and winter temperatures are too large.
In this reason the local climate is unbearable. The summers are short, but very hot. The average daily temperature in July is 26°C, but often is higher than 30°C.
In the same time, the heat lasts only two months. At the expense of this fact, the winter can be very long and hot. The first snow can fall in October and the last can fall even in May!
The temperatures in January are not higher than (-13) °C in the day and (-23) °C in the night.
The natives are adapted to these hard conditions, but for the visitors the climate of Winnipeg is too harsh. In the biggest part of the spring the weather is cold, but at the end of the season the temperatures get comparatively high.
The autumn begins with warm and nice weather, but to the end of the season the conditions undergo significant changes and the second half is very cold.
The highest peak of Canada is Logan – 6050m. It is situated in the Yukon Territory, in the north-west part of the Rocky Mountains. Because of its significant altitude, the peak is all year around covered by snow.
The biggest lake on the territory of Canada is the Lake Superior. The lake is situated on the border with USA. It is one of the Great American Lakes. This is the biggest freshwater lake in the world.
It occupies an area of 82 400sq.km. and its depth is around 400m. The biggest river on the territory of Canada is Mackenzie. It is 1600km. long.
The river passes through the icily cold, uninhabited Northwest Territories of Canada and flow into the Mackenzie Bay in the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean). The river is exceptionally high-water and it is covered with thick ice in the winter months.
The biggest island on the territory of the country is Baffin Island. It is situated near by the north-east coast of Canada, not far from Greenland.
The biggest Canadian bay is Hudson Bay. It is 1400km. long in its longest side. It occupies significant parts of the north-east part of the country.
The climate conditions here are exceptionally harsh and unbearable. With its occupation between 52° and 64° northern latitude, the Hudson Bay actually is not situated too north.
Can be found many countries with mild, temperate climate, as Great Britain, Denmark and southern Sweden that are situated on the same latitude. But in Canada, because of the flat relief the involving of polar air masses is significant and the climate is subarctic.
The ocean streams in this part of the Atlantic are cold. The average daily temperatures in January on the coast of Hudson Bay vary between (-20) °C and (-30) °C.
Sometimes the winter temperatures can drop to (-50) °C. The waters of the bay freeze every year. This area is favourite place of the polar bears.
Unfortunately, sometimes the bear and people get in too close contact and the bears from predators turn into victims of the people.
Canada has indented coastline. The bays are very beautiful. Especially picturesque is the west coast. The landscape remains to the coast of Norway and the South Island of New Zealand.
Here can be seen amazing fiords that are home to the Killer Whale – one of the most intelligent animals on the planet. Canada posses endless forest resources. In this country can be found some of the biggest pine forests on the planet.
Grizzly bear, Black bear, puma, deer and so on are part of the typical animal species that inhabit this country. Canada also has one of the biggest fresh water resources on the planet.
The heavy snowfalls in the winter and rainfalls in the summer as well as the comparatively cool climate are the reason for the immense water resources of Canada.
Great Bear lake, the Slave Lake, Winnipeg Lake as well as the Great American Lakes are just a little part of the great number of the Canadian lakes. There are hundreds of deep water rivers on the endless territories of this country.
There are 43 National Parks on the territory of Canada. The western parts of country as well as the mountains are occupied by amazing pine forests. The broad- leaved forest can be seen mainly in the eastern parts of the country.
The limpid water of the beautiful lakes remain a mirror. They are as a magnet to the visitors. The country is not dense populated. Except the southern-most areas that are dense populated, in the other parts of the country man can drive hours and hours without noticing any civilization.