The subarctic area is transition climate zone between the temperate and polar climate zone. It occupies the area around and beyond the Arctic Circle. This climate zone is wide spread almost only in the North hemisphere because of the missing of mainland, in these latitudes, in the South hemisphere. The ocean in this area in the South hemisphere, strongly modify the subarctic climate. It is wide spread in the northern most parts North America (Alaska and North Canada), the northern part of Scandinavia and northern Asia (Siberia in Russia).
Out of these areas this climate occupies the higher parts of the mountains (for example in the Alps can be found in the areas above 1500m.).
Subarctic climate is wide spread also in the high parts of the Andes, Himalayas, Rocky mountains and so on. This climate is characterized by long and very cold winters.
The temperatures can be negative more than six months in the year. Sometimes the temperatures can reach -40 °C. The summer is short and cool.
Extend between one and three months. Only in exceptionally rare cases the temperatures can reach to 25 °C.
As a result of the short summer, the soil which is frozen in deep during the winter can’t unfreeze entirely, as haven’t time spare.
Only the upper stratum of the soil can unfreeze wholly, because of the insufficient warmth. In this reason, most of the plants have shallow situated roots.
There are mainly grassy plants and some kinds of coniferous trees. The animal species have great diversity – beaver, otter, deer, bear, fox, and so on.
With smaller diversity are the reptiles and amphibians, because they need more warmth and sunshine as they are cold blooded.
The subarctic climate zone is not dense populated, because of the hard conditions of life. There aren’t big cities. The inhabitants are concentrated in smaller settlements.