India is one of the most significant countries in the world. This is the biggest English spoken country. It is situated on the Indian subcontinent (the peninsula of Hindustan) in the southern parts of Asia. In the past India was part of the British Empire. It was named India by the river Ind that is one of the most high-water rivers in Asia. India is incredible rich as economic power and as cultural center. India is the reason to be found the ,,New World‘‘ (America). Christopher Columbus has reached America on the 12th of October 1492 when he has tried to find a short way to India.
For the Europeans, in the Middle Ages India was maybe the most exotic country in the world. It has been famous as the land of incredible spices and fine, exquisite textile.
India is the seventh biggest country in the world after Russia, Canada, USA, China, Brazil and Australia. It occupies an area of 3 287 590sq.km. It has population of more than 1 400 000 000 people.
The trend shows that in the 21 century undoubtedly India will be the most populated country on the planet (today yet the most populated is China).
India borders on Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar.
In the years when India was part of the British Empire, the country occupied also the territory of today’s Pakistan. Down to the present day India and Pakistan have undecided controversy about the border between the countries.
Regard to the religious composition of the population, it can be divided in four groups – Hindus, Christians, Muslims and Sakhis.
Climate. India is situated in the subequatorial and tropical climate zone. In the tropical climate zone is situated Tar desert. It occupies the north-west part of the country. In Tar desert the weather is hot and dry, all year around.
The daily temperatures are always higher then 30 °C. In the night the temperatures can drop to 0 °C. The precipitations are poor.
Because of the harsh climate, this area is sparsely populated. But the biggest part of India, fall under the influence of the subequatorial climate zone.
In that climate zone there are two seasons – rainy and dry. The rainy season is usually during the summer months. The heavy rains in the rainy season can be reason for disasters and floods.
The heavy rains are feed up by the warm and wet air masses that came from the Indian Ocean.
The biggest part of the territory of India is covered by savannah with the exception of the north-west part of the country that is occupied by desert, north-east that is covered by jungle and the south-west coast covered by jungle too.
The biggest Indian city – Mumbai – is situated on the west coast and it has hot, subequatorial climate. The daily temperatures in Mumbai vary between 29 and 32 °C.
The temperatures in the city are constant all year around but this is not valid to the precipitations. In June, July, August and September falls the biggest part of the precipitations.
This is the rainy season. The precipitations are heavy and continued. The other months of the year can be very dry.
Calcutta (Kolkata) is the second largest city in India. It is situated in the north-east part of the country. It has very hot and humid subequatorial climate.
The coldest month is December with daily temperatures around 26 °C. The hottest months are May and June with temperatures around 36 °C. The rainy season is from May to October. The biggest part of the precipitations fall in this part of the year.
New Delhi is the capital of India. It has tropical climate. The coldest month is January with daily temperature around 21 °C. This is maybe the best part of the year with the most easy-bearable weather.
The temperatures in February are around 24 – 25 °C. The hottest month is May. The average daily temperatures are 41 °C. The wettest months are June, July, August and September.
India is a country of contrasts, similar to Brazil and Italy. On the one hand you will be shocked of the luxury and beauty that you can see everywhere.
On the other hand you will be horrified of the poverty and misery that can be seen in one so developed society. In one and the same city you can see exquisite, marble villas and small, tumble-down hovels that have been built of materials at hand.
In the central parts of the big cities and in the luxury suburbs the infrastructure is perfect, but in the poor areas the conditions are very hard.
In many cases there are not roads and side walks and the people walk right into the mud. Wealth and poorness contrast as well as urbanization and nature.
On the one hand you can see office buildings with incredible architecture on the other hand you can see monkeys on the city streets, on the trees and everywhere.
Sometimes the monkeys cause great bustle because they enter into the offices through the open windows and turn everything upside down. Despite monkey’s mischief, the people really love these animals.
One of the symbols of India is the river Gang. On the river banks can be seen splendid palaces. In the same time near by these palaces you can see the personification of poorness.
This river is sacred to the natives and they bathe ritually in it. But this bathing can be very dangerous, because the river pass through the part of one of the most populated countries in the world. Passing through the big cities of India, the river take the pollute waters of life and industry.
In Agra, India you can see one of the biggest landmarks of the Indian subcontinent and one of the world wonders of the architecture.
The building of phenomenal mausoleum begins in 1633 and lasts 11 years. Its name is Taj Mahal.
The masterpiece has built by the Shah Jahan because he has been smashed of the dead of his wife. She has died when she born their child. That was the least he was able to do.
India has rich culture and traditions. It leaves to the world incredible heritage. One of the oldest teachings on the planet – Yoga – comes from India.
Yoga appears in the down of human civilization. Teach the people to live in piece and harmony with themselves and the surrounding world. The ancient Indian sage Patanjali is considered to be the founder of the philosophy of Yoga.
Today India has one of the strongest economics in the world. Gradually the country becomes one of the most important factors of the world economy and politic. India invests a lot in science and in the developing of the new technologies. The economy of India is the fourth biggest on the planet after USA, EU and China.